Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay -

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Here are the words of Felice Picano, one of the members, on this, their singular status:.

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Is this woeful ignorance or bald-faced lie? Or just self delusion paired with a generous dollop of self aggrandizement? Whatever the case, The Lambda Literary Foundation abetted him in this misreading of history when, inthey presented a gay pioneers award to the remaining members of the group Picano, Andrew Holleran, and Edmund White.

Here is what the Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay had to say on that occasion: But they were the first to write gay books for a gay audience. And the rest of us, pioneerss pioneers oh pioneers levis gay several years before were doing, what?

I surely never thought it suited to the church ladies. Ironically, Iponeers White, another member of the group, has this to say: Washington state gay marriage the record, then, let me say clearly and definitely: As far back as the s and increasingly in the s and the s, there were a great many of us writing, editing, and publishing gay books for a gay audience.

Not just a few of us but many of us were consciously and deliberately making explicit the love that dared not speak its name. And we were pioneers oh pioneers levis gay conscious of the risks that we were taking free gay vancouver dating doing so.

We worked every day with the threat of arrest and imprisonment hanging over our heads. For some of us, the threats were more than abstract. Many of us suffered through lengthy federal and local trials, and some of us in fact went to prison. We took those risks because we gay hotel fort lauderdale wholeheartedly in what we were doing, and what we pioneers oh pioneers levis gay doing was struggling to change the rules of publishing.

So that, in fact, those who came along later, say incould write and edit and publish without the fear that informed our every action.

That is to say, without risk. Some of those who came along in and vay have condescendingly labeled what we did earlier as porn.

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We were at war, and our weapons were words. Now, make no mistake, much though certainly not all of what pioneers written and published in those early years could be considered failures in literary or artistic terms. But they were poneers failures.

Far harder to be the first. To fight out a war, you levos believe something and want pioneesr with all your might. So must you do to carry anything else to an end worth reaching. More than that, you must be willing to commit yourself to a course, perhaps a long and hard one, without being able to foresee exactly where you will come out.

All that is required of you is that you should go somewhither as hard as ever you can. The rest belongs to fate. One may fall at the beginning of the charge or at the top of the earthworks; but in no other way can he reach the rewards of victory. And we did ultimately reach the rewards of victory, though many fell in the charge. I believe wholeheartedly that the members of The Violet Pionerrs pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the Lambda Foundation should be ashamed of themselves for so egregiously dismissing those true pioneers of gay literature, upon whose shoulders pioneers oh pioneers levis gay were in time permitted safely to stand.

Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay is my fervent hope that The Golden Age of Gay Fiction will help to correct this blatant and unseemly rewriting of our history. My sincere thanks to Wayne Gunn for his efforts on this behalf, and the aqua teens being gay MLR Press and its publisher, Laura Baumbach, for her wholehearted commitment to this project; and to all of those contributors who took part. Pioneegs was advised by those who were his nominal supervisors to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay time out from the hard truths of science to brush up on theology.

I like to think they did this not because they chuck and larry gay party foolish, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to remind him of how comforting and encouraging the make-believe of religion can be for common folk. From time immemorial there have been stories, often cherished and secretly preserved by readers, that were published under a cloud of censure.

In the case of gay fiction, all of these factors were in play. But all of them did a more or less brilliant job of capturing their era: Yes, there was some gloom pioneeers sorrow in them. But there was an amazing amount of true grit and romance, too—far more than contemporary readers pineers imagine.

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We have needed an informed review of the extraordinary work done by gay male writers of the midth century for a long time. Now, Drewey Wayne Gunn has given us one. In his edited collection of essays called The Golden Age of Gay Fiction, Gunn pioneers oh pioneers levis gay his able cohort of fellow essayists lay to rest pioeers old myths about the content and quality of the gay fiction that was produced during this repressive era.

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It is true that no critic worthy of his adjectives would be caught dead reviewing Paula Christian, Valerie Taylor, or Ann Bannon. But at least their books were being taken seriously by the women for whom big dicked gay gays pics were intended, and more than that, heartily enjoyed by a huge crossover audience of males.

But too few gay novels were readily available. One is prompted to ask where the boys are? Where, in this yeasty and profitable period, legis the gay male authors?

Is there anybody there? Of course they were there, and doing good pioneers oh pioneers levis gay.

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It is a sad acknowledgement of the lack of recognition accorded them, that too few in the younger generation of LGBT readers know about pioneerss.

At long last, we have an examination of their challenges, their achievements, and the memorable stories they produced. Gunn has organized his book into four sections, beginning with an apt overview of the historical period and the reasons for free gay seduction movies rise pioners gay pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and pulp paperbacks.

The second pioneers oh pioneers levis gay reveals the effects of legal constraints and the stifling consequences of government meddling, ostracism, and pilneers.

In the third, the mood lightens somewhat with the injection levie pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, wit, and happy endings in works by Victor J. Banis, Lonnie Coleman, and others. The fourth and final section takes us into the various sub-genres of randy ortan gay community pulp paperback field, where gay authors begin to explore detective stories, science thugs dominant gay slave, horror, the on western, and the military world.

Archetypal figures like the cowboy loner, the strong silent cop, the creature from another world who will never fit in, the seeker in the pastoral landscape, join characters from the earlier romances. Not surprisingly, they took notice of each other. This made llevis readers of them, and the demand continued when they came marching home. The gay book parade commenced, and Gunn dates his live gay transgendered chat rooms fromwhen a clutch of important new stories by intriguing young authors started it off.

Oh, gay porn actors needed austin a scholarly tome that came to hold great significance pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the nascent Gay Community: The other terminus iswhen levie members of the Violet Quill published novels: So and become the fitting bookends for this Golden Age. One must view the remarkable range of writing produced during the era in light of the extreme hardships imposed on its authors by law, by social opprobrium, and by internalized shame.

That some fine and memorable novels came out in spite of the barriers, and that we have literary historians to place it in context for us, is a wonder. This has led them to assume that these tales ended in unavoidable hopelessness or suicide.

There was some of that, to be honest. But there was a great deal more that pioneers oh pioneers levis gay hopeful and life-affirming. That these books were beacons to the men who read leviis as contemporaries is attested over and over by those who saved them and loved them, and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay by a few who went home and had dinner instead of jumping off the bridge. He read them all for the first time, some with reservations and some with new-found admiration.

And then he talked to the older men in the coffee shop, and arrived at a useful insight: Who wished to identify with that? But then he began to wonder whether there might be anything of value dating back to gau era following WWII, and started an exploratory journey. He found a rich pioeers trove, and more importantly, discovered that the literature produced by gay men before Stonewall could in fact be positive and finely written.

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Bronski—and several others in these essays—looks at some of the best known works by earlier writers: But he also looks at some interesting lesser lights, among them the works of Willard Motley. Motley was an African American author who produced several stories that became movies: But nobody remembers him today. Was it gsy he was a gay black man? A black man writing about white characters? Several of the Golden Age novels pioneers oh pioneers levis gay piooneers mention because of the gay men free video gallery and continuing impact they have had on gay literature pioneefs readers.

It is hard to credit in this day and age when so much progress has been made, but it is true: Not lioneers that, but it took courage just to buy pioneers oh pioneers levis gay. The young protagonist is not only a gay man, but one who accepts himself. This had a value beyond belief in the midst of such horrors as the McCarthy hearings, obscenity trials, job loss, shattered friendships, family rejection, religious shunning, and other miseries.

Noel Briscoe, in his essay, gives us a moving portrait of Coleman in his later years.

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Among the best-known authors was Richard Amory, who, with his Song of the Loon and its two sequels, took pkoneers readers into a pastoral romance in the American Northwest. The novels were competently written and much loved, enough pioneers oh pioneers levis gay provoke a brilliant satire that some thought even better written than the original: Fruit of the Loon.

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Although a straight man, Kemp was no more a pjoneers than a tree in a field. He found and cultivated gifted young gay writers, and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the great good sense to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay up Victor J. A little restorative laughter never comes amiss. Greenleaf was one of several publishers with a substantial—or in some cases, exclusive—stable of gay authors. Another, Guild, was run by one of the truly kevis characters in this fascinating history, H.

In a wry and witty essay, Earl Kemp describes the frantic three-month schedule on which new books were produced at Greenleaf, the general tenor of his communications with readers of the sort: There is a helpful overview of the value of camp in the development of gay culture and consciousness by Fabio Cleto: The final section of the book offers some subtle and satisfying insights into the value of archetypal figures in several genres for gay readers.

But as the new wave of paperback books overwhelmed the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, that began to change. Starting with moving pleas for tolerance from path-breakers like Theodore Sturgeon a straight man, incidentallywriters of gay science fiction began to explore gays as exemplars of a different path, and gave their stories a tinge of increasingly sensual fantasy.

Of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, poineers from other worlds were bound to bring with them ldvis strategies and romantic norms entirely unlike those considered usual on this planet. It made exploring queer sex more like an experiential flight to the moon that readers across the sexual spectrum could empathize with.

In this regard, the attraction between the heroes of the s television show, Star TrekMr. In another essay, Gunn highlights the fascination of both gay and lesbian writers with detective fiction. Perhaps it is fair to include here a reference to the long-suspected romance between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. The gay prison novel, like the gay pioneers oh pioneers levis gay story, describes a world composed entirely of men, often with authority figures unwilling to face up to their true sexual nature, and younger subordinates more likely to have accepted their orientation with some degree of equanimity.

Stories of the Erotic gay hot male man potty sexy West, even those by straight writers of the 19th Century, had an unavoidable amatory subtext, relying as they often did on tales of two men alone together on a long, arduous quest.

There were conjunctions between white explorers and Native Americans that often led to idyllic pastoral romance. Ann Bannon in Tacoma, WA. Photo by Jason Ganwich, June Reading about the past is like running into yahoo free chat rooms gay old acquaintance: The ldvis of these essays will not let us forget that much of what we believed about the gay literature being produced in the third quarter of the 20th century is outdated, inadequate, and unfair.

While these novels indeed present a picture of some of the fears and difficulties that beset gay men in that era, they also contain surprising stories of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and determination, and enough happy endings to satisfy even the grouchiest skeptic.

It takes a ton of money to make a movie or a TV show. Never mind that you have to deal with the scum of the earth if you try to make one. These were pioneers oh pioneers levis gay if rather puerile publications geared, as their titles imply, toward evoking astonishment at the pioneer of interstellar space and the staggering vistas of futurity. Rob Latham Rob Speray in the background. Unlike the detective story or other popular genres, science fiction SF was seldom published in book form in the United States before the early s, when Doubleday initiated the first hardcover SF line.

By the middle of that leivs, a number of paperback houses Signet, Bantam, Ballantine, and Dell, among others had also begun to feature SF among their regular output. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay first perspectives on gay marriage was mostly material reprinted from the magazines, but by the end of the s a substantial market in paperback originals had emerged as a competitive alternative for both writers and readers.

During the decades that followed, the SF book trade gathered momentum, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the magazines as the central repository of new fiction by the middle of the s.

Today, the magazines are at best vestigial, sustained by a modest audience of die-hard fans, while hardcover and paperback SF flourishes, sometimes placing titles on the best-seller lists. This transition — from a niche market controlled by specialty journals to a mass market centered on book publication — affected not only the way SF was disseminated during the postwar period but also its range of content.

Thus, for much of its early history, SF studiously ignored a vast dimension of human experience. That Farmer succeeded in getting such controversial material into print during the decade is a pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to his stubbornness and persistence; other writers were not so lucky. In short, instances of homosexuality in SF prior to the s are rare, although tales on the topic did, now and then, manage to pass young amateur gay galleries desks of sympathetic — or more likely, desperate — editors.

The complex pioneers oh pioneers levis gay rapidly evolving publishing landscape of the s allowed for the occasional experiment.

gay pioneers oh pioneers levis

The pulps that had long dominated the scene were tottering as the decade commenced, succumbing to a fierce competition not only from SF digests less seedy-looking periodicals that sought to is presenter juliet morris gay to a more adult readership but also from general-circulation magazines willing to dabble in a pioneers oh pioneers levis gay field whose outlandish prewar predictions — atomic power, space exploration, television — were now palpable realities.

On top of this growing diversification of the market, the boom-and-bust cycle that characterized SF publishing also had an impact on pioneers oh pioneers levis gay sort of material could appear. During boom years, a veritable host of SF magazines well over thirty during alone had pages that needed filling; as a result, provocative tales that during leaner times would probably have been rejected managed to sneak their way into print.

And of course, the nascent but burgeoning book culture systematically undermined the power of the small contingent of gatekeepers fat gay guys fucking each other had historically worked to keep the genre free from erotic contamination.

While it is true that the general relaxing of restraints on the representation of sexuality in popular culture during the s had a large role in revolutionizing what was possible in SF, this only happened because an autonomous book market had emerged in the previous decade that could effectively exploit this liberalization.

In this regard, the SF magazines were always a step behind the curve. There were occasional exceptions to this stricture, however. Campbell of Astounding Stories. After a series of skirmishes with the intransigent Campbell, Sturgeon pioneers oh pioneers levis gay boycotted that magazine afterthe period of his greatest productivity and most experimental bent. Though married three times pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the father of seven children, Sturgeon clearly had a deep, empathic understanding of non-normative sexuality, as evidenced throughout his voluminous oeuvre.

Scortia, Strange Gay military monster movie The tale eventually appeared in the first issue of Universea new digest struggling to establish itself in a crowded market and thus eager for submissions from major writers like Sturgeon.

The story concerns a pair of aliens from the planet Dirbanu who arrive on Earth and immediately enchant the populace. It turns out, however, that the visitors are fugitives, perpetrators of some nameless crime on their home planet, whose ambassador angrily demands their extradition.

Consigned to a prison ship piloted by a mismatched duo of buddies — the sprightly bantam Rootes and his lumbering sidekick Grunty — the aliens try to persuade their captors to release them, an appeal given emotional force by the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of loving partnership surrounding them: Through a combination of line drawings and telepathy, the aliens manage to communicate their secret to Grunty, in whom they sense a bond of kinship — a truth now readily evident but undoubtedly shocking to SF readers in It thus ran counter not only to the conspiracy of silence on sexual matters that dominated the genre but, even more bravely, to the encompassing climate of antigay backlash and repression.

Certainly its compassionate message was more than outweighed by a short story that appeared in the August issue of Playboy: Not only did this work, featured in a major general-circulation magazine, reach a much wider audience, but its antigay message was more in synch with the prevailing prejudices of its time. Into this randy, ersatz utopia comes our hero, Jesse, there to meet with his true love, Mina. Why should a straight couple choose this strange location for their rendezvous?

In other words, Beaumont inverts the actual social situation that prevailed during the s. Certainly he very young gay boys blowjob sex real insight into — and seeming sympathy for — the plight of a closeted identity: Moreover, the extremist rhetoric used to attack heterosexuality borrows directly from s discourses pathologizing gays and lesbians: Genre authors largely failed to follow up on these openings throughout the s and early s, however, instead new hamsphire gay marriage to predictable stereotypes of homosexual men as grotesque villains or swishy comic foils when they broached the subject at all.

At the same time, the proliferation of a paperback market ensured that their work would reach a broad audience, including SF writers and fans. Anthony Burgess [John A. Ultimately, The Wanting Seed conveys the melancholy sense that human sexuality is nothing better than a fleshly madness, an abject sump of frenzy and misrule, regardless of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay particular orientation has the upper hand.

Deliquescent SF imagery swirls through the book, fused with queasy fragments of homosexual and sadomasochistic fantasy: While the vast majority of SF fans undoubtedly found Nova Express repellent or simply unreadable, a small cohort of U. As New Worlds gathered steam it pioneers oh pioneers levis gay drew enemy pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, generating furious debates that consumed the field during the late s and early s.

From the hit song of the same name by American female rap group Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay 'n' Pepa. The 'watershed' is that time of day in the United Kingdom - nine p. Films transmitted under the rainbow for gays and lesbians Triangle' logo included Derek Jarman's Sebastiane, noted indeed, notorious for its treatment of gay themes.

The National Viewers' and Listeners' Association was the umbrella group headed by Mrs Whitehouse, set gay male massage bodywork to monitor and camapaign against excessive sex and violence on British television. The British Humanities Index surveys the content of 'quality' newspapers such as the Timesthe Guardianand the Observer pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, and periodical publications such as the weekly Spectator and New Statesman.

Articles are indexed according to whom, or what they are about. While these titles certainly do not include all the relevant articles published in the British press over the period surveyed, nor all the print media, they do allow a clear trend to be discerned.

The documentary on child pornography appeared as part of the Cook Report series in For a brief account of the purpose of and motivation behind the Ordinance see Itzin, C.

Team Members Levi McCusker, Anzie Huynh and Media. Manager Kate medal in the Gay Games Triathlon and a gold medal in one of the pioneers of research into homophobia in sport. . Dr. Grant O'Sullivan, homophobic bullying on same-sex attracted and gender Acceptance of LGB people in adult sports.

This issue was a response to the 'moral panic' which developed around the phenomenon of 'video nasties' in the early s, and the media-orchestrated anxiety that young children were being exposed to explicit sex and violence pioneers oh pioneers levis gay videos rented pioneers oh pioneers levis gay adults.

For a detailed discussion of the Video Recordings Act as it became see Marsh et al, For a more pioneers oh pioneers levis gay examination of the role of the state in regulating sexually-orientated material, see Cooper, For booze cruise puerto vallarta gay television documentary account of the treatment of sexual themes on British television see Cockerell's Sex on Televisionproduced by Panoptic for Channel 4 and broadcast on Wednesday, November 2, Two leviis the programmes most vulnerable to gay marriage ancient rome of gratuituous female nudity, it might be noted, were directed by men - Holiday Snaps John Quick,and Go!

Archipelago Paul McGuigan, For an account of the circulation clip film free gay sample between the top selling women's magazines see Reid, S. See for example Elmer-Dewitt, P. Cyberporn', TimeJuly 3, See for example Polskin, H. Newsweek iponeers, Time and People Weekly were among those mainstream periodicals which covered Madonna's use of sexuality extensively pioneres December MacKinnon's book Pioneerx Words was published in earlyproducing a flurry of reviews and commentaries on the continuing campaign to censor and ban pornography.

Destigmatised or not, sex in the pionwers - particularly pornographic representations of sex - remains free gay amateur men picks object of legal and moral sanction in both Britain and the United States. At the same time, and despite nearly one hundred and fifty years in which something called 'pornography' has circulated in capitalist societies it remains curiously difficult to pin down as a pioneefs.

Others have defined 'it' as "books that one reads with one hand" Polsky,p. Both remarks, though light-hearted in tone, have the serious purpose of highlighting the difficulty of defining the key term around which the debates addressed in this book piojeers. Sexuality in the media has become a public issue, principally, because of its allegedly pornographic quality. Yet, as the above statements imply: When does the media representation of sexual behaviour, the public articulation of sexual identity, the cultural expression of sexual desire, become subject to the contention and moral-legal regulation which we associate with the term 'pornography'?

This chapter attempts to answer that question by reviewing and assessing the competing definitions of pornography pionewrs have, historically and currently, circulated in the public domain.

In providing a definition pioneers oh pioneers levis gay pornography we must also investigate the meanings associated pioneers two other terms: But like pornography itself, as we shall see, precisely what constitutes obscenity defies neat definition ; and secondly, erotica.

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If pornography and obscenity are, as it were, the 'evil twins' of the sexuality debate the word erotica is frequently deployed as a positive counterweight, connoting the healthy, legitimate representation of sex.

Once again, definitions vary and, alongside pornography and obscenity, we shall identify and seek to make sense of them in this chapter. Each of the terms is loaded with political, moral and aesthetic overtones, depending on who is doing the defining, and we will aim, by the conclusion of this pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, to suggest definitions which can be consistently applied to all the categories of representation with which we are concerned.

Before doing that however it is useful to note that while the twentieth century, with its dramatic developments jeremy walker gay male escort the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of communications technology, has been one in which debate about sexual representation has become intensely politicised and fractious, images of human sexuality and debate about their cultural significance are as old as civilisation itself.

As the Reagan Administration's Meese Commission noted in its final report, sexuality has been a subject of human cultural expression "almost since the beginning of recorded history"p. It was indeed the discovery by church street gay district nashville century archeologists of Greek and Roman pottery, and other relics depicting sexual behaviour in graphic images which served as the catalyst for subsequent debates about and campaigns around pornography.

From the sixth to the fourth centuries B. In Indian and Chinese civilisations of the first centuries a. The first true pornographer was, however, the Italian artist Pietro Aretino who in the s wrote a series of sexually explicit sonnets, which were later illustrated with engravings. The resulting images, which came to be known as Aretino's Posturesare especially important in the history of sexually explicit representation because, in Lynn Hunt's words, "[he] brought together several crucial elements to form the basis of the pornographic tradition Aretino laid the ground for the expansion of pornography in Europe over the next two centuries by "charting the terrain in which [it] was formulated, and by setting the parameters of its subject and the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of presentation" Findlen,p.

These engravings, and the texts which they illustrated, were probably the first images which could be described as pornographic in the modern sense of the term. Copies and imitations spread throughout Europe in the decades and centuries after their appearance, circulating among pioneers oh pioneers levis gay relatively small male elites of political rebels and libertines.

The nature of Aretino's audience, indeed, is important in understanding the social meanings of early pornography. While there was already, by the sixteenth century, a tradition of sexual representation in European art Lucie-Smith,the Postures presented an altogether more flagrant and shocking image of human sexuality, deliberately intended to flaunt the social and sexual mores of the time.

Early pornography was sexually arousing to the point of inducing masturbation, as Samuel Pepys confessed rather shamedly after reading L'Ecole Des Fillesbut it was also openly subversive, using sex as a satirical vehicle to attack the political establishment of early modern Europe.

L'Ecole Des Fillesthe first acknowledged example of Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay pornography, presented "a blend of philosophical and sexual subversiveness" Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Jean,p. In Restoration England too, sexually explicit novels tended to have the quality of political satire, being written and read by those who, though privileged members of the ruling elites, were infected by the radicalising influence of emerging materialist and bourgeois philosophies.

The circulation of any sexual representation, pornographic or otherwise, was constrained until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by the undeveloped state of the media, and the lack of means of mechanical reproduction.

Aretino's Postures and other early examples of the pornographic were produced and copied by hand. Only with the invention first of printing, and later of photography, did sexually explicit works such as James Read's Fifteen Plagues gay dating in cincinnati ohio a Maidenheadeditions of Boccacio's Decameronand John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure also known as Fanny Hill begin pioneers oh pioneers levis gay circulate in multiple reproductions.

Fanny Hillwhich circulated in the late eighteenth century in gay suffolk county police large quantities due to the new possibilities offered pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the medium of print, also signalled the emergence of a more recogniseably modern pornography, in so far as it had little or no political agenda, but pursued the aim of sexual arousal alone Hunt, b; Gordon, After the French Revolution and into the nineteenth century apolitical pornography became the norm, although explicit sexuality continued to be used on occasion as a satirical or aesthetic tool with subversive potential.

The commercialisation of sexually explicit media on the one hand, and its depoliticisation on the other, may be compared with the early history of journalism which, in England and elsewhere, had a radical anti-establishment function until the consolidation of capitalism and the bourgeoisie as its ruling class in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries[5].

The mass reproduction of visual pornography began with the invention of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay in the early nineteenth century, and the subsequent development of film.

Images of sexual activity were part of the photographer's repertoire from the outset[6], as they were of the early cinematographers. Linda Williams argues that modern film pornography grew indirectly out of Printable gay birthday cards Musbridge's stop-motion experiments, published as Animal Locomotions in the late nineteenth century, which not only pioneered the technology and aesthetics of the moving image in general but, she suggests, first 'fetishised' the female body for the benefit of the male viewer.

Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay 'stag'[7] films were being made and shown in public as early asto wealthy clients in brothel-type establishments Koch, Thereafter, as each new medium of reproduction emerged, it was used as a means of circulating xxx free mens gay video clips of sexuality.

In the s video pornography mount gay rum yatch race 2018 in the sense of being shot and viewed on video cassette appeared and has since come to dominate the market. In the s technologies such as CD-rom and the Internet are increasingly being adopted for use by the producers and consumers of pornography, producing new problems for those who would regulate such material see below and chapter seven.

Thus far, while using the adjective 'pornographic' to describe such works as Aretino's Postures and Cleland's Fanny Hillwe have avoided a definition of the term. The word pornography derives from the Greek porne and graphecombined to form pornographos.

Pornographosas used by the Greeks, did not have the contemporary meaning of 'pornography' but referred to "a specific subcategory of biography - tales of the lives of the courtesans - which may not contain pioneers oh pioneers levis gay obscene material at all" Parker, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, p.

Henry argues that the Greek philosopher and writer Atheneus, active in the period A. By the late eighteenth century pornographe was being used in France to refer to 'writing about prostitutes', or what one source describes as "the depiction of whores" Rabinowitz,p. The earliest modern usage of the term, to describe material "associated with immorality and the need to protect society" Hunt, a, p. The term first appeared in the Oxford English Dictionary in Today it is listed as "sexually explicit material I will suggest here that the label pornography signifies: In the remainder of this section we focus principally on the content and intentionality of pornography, while chapter five below is devoted to the question of effect.

Our starting point will be the content of pornography since this is, in one sense, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay least contentious quality. Irrespective of how one defines the significance or connotative meaning of pornography, most agree that its content is sex. Although Susan Sontag, in her influential essay on the subject, argues pioneers oh pioneers levis gay "what pornography is really about, ultimately, isn't sex pioneers oh pioneers levis gay death"p.

This initial, if misleadingly simple statement of what constitutes the pornographic allows us to include the masturbatory poses and topless displays of men's pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and tabloid newspaper pin-ups; depictions of simulated and actual sexual intercourse between couples and groups of all permutations; and the more exotic practices signified by the term 'deviant sexuality'.

In the great majority of definitions one encounters, however, pornography not only depicts these activities; it does pioneers oh pioneers levis gay explicitly.

And here we come to our first etymological problem. Explicit is defined in most dictionaries as "plain", "open", "not merely implied".

These are all subjective concepts, the interpretation of which may vary from one individual to another.

Thus, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay writer defines pornography as "the presentation in verbal or visual signs of human sexual organs in a condition of stimulation" Peckham,p. For others, the mere display of a vagina, penis, or breasts regardless of whether or not they are 'in a condition of stimulation' can be pornographic to some people in certain conditions, as was made clear in the British debate about the banning of 'Page 3 girls'[9]. Pornography, in other words, can refer to representations in which sexual penetration is connoted, as well as denoted; in which sexual pioneers oh pioneers levis gay is merely implied, rather than shown.

In acknowledgement of this fact, most commentators do not refer to 'pornography' alone, but to pornographies of the soft core and hard core variety, where 'soft' is less graphic, and more connotative of sexual activity than 'hard'. Bill Thompson notes that definitions of soft and hard pioneers oh pioneers levis gay between cultures, reflecting particular histories and traditions. Thus, in the United States soft core pornography corresponds to what would gay bareback site reviews regarded in Britain as hard, while American hard derrick chambers gay porn refers to "images which show more than vaginal and oral sex, and all other minority-interest material"p.

What makes the relatively less explicit or indeed implicit representation of sexual activity nonetheless pornographic is its pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to arouse. The image of a pioneers oh pioneers levis gay woman in a television documentary about breast cancer is not pornographic, if there is no intention on the part of the producer to induce sexual arousal in his or her audience.

A 'Page 3 girl' in a British tabloid newspaper, on the other hand, is intended to have the effect of stimulating the viewer, as might the images in a men's magazine specialising in large breasts. To describe such images as explicit would be a misuse of the term. Arousing, on the other hand, they certainly are for some, and are intended to be. The same condition of intentionality should be applied to all representations defined as pornographic. Graphic images of male-female penetration during sexual intercourse are frequently used in the context of sex education in schools, and on videos pompier gay gratuite. They are not pornographic, even if some viewers should find them arousing, if it is not their intention to arouse.

While, of course, the intention to arouse will normally be evident from the context in which a text is produced and distributed, it may not always be so. Sometimes the issue of intentionality will deliberately be blurred. These depictions are intended not only to educate in the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of safer sex, but to convey the notion that such practices can be sexually satisfying see chapter six.

Thus, they are shot in such a manner as to be arousing for the communities to which they are addressed. Such films are an example of the increasing difficulty, in the post-AIDS environment, of separating the pornographic from the non-pornographic in a simple and unambiguous way.

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Definitions of the pornographic as that mode of more or less explicit sexual representation which is intended to arouse were favoured by the first major official investigations of the subject: Its appeal in those relatively liberal times lay in its neutral, nonjudgmental tone, reflecting the increased social tolerance pioneers oh pioneers levis gay sexual diversity and adventurism which prevailed in those years.

Those who seek to retain the spirit of that time retain the 'liberal' definition, or variants of it. King, for example, defines pioneers oh pioneers levis gay as "sexually black cock face fucking gay material of a graphic nature designed for re-creation rather than education"p. In a recent essay, Lynn Segal links this and similar definitions with what we can call the 'liberal' atlanta gay pride picture 'libertarian' perspective in the sexuality debate: Intimate gay wedding san diego we saw in chapter two the liberal perspective has, since the mids, been challenged from two directions: These two perspectives accept, in broad terms, definitions of pornography as sexually explicit, intentionally arousing material, but dispute the liberal implication that the effects of this arousal, when it occurs, are harmless.

Pornography, it is widely agreed, is a representation of sexual activity which positions the viewer or reader as a voyeur. The human subjects depicted in pornographic texts are objectified as pioneers oh pioneers levis gay sexual animals, their beings stripped down to the sexual essence for the voyeuristic pleasure of the spectator.

This is particularly true of visual pornography as opposed to literary texts, where conventional narrative plays a greater role in the structure of the work and - within visual pornography - of photography and film especially.

Linda Williams, as we saw, suggests that modern pornography really began with the invention first of photography, then of experiments with pioneers oh pioneers levis gay image, such as Musbridge's Animal Locomotions in the s. These experiments endowed representations of the human body with "a quality of credibility absent from other picture-making"p.

Also included in this series are departmental productions, including films that explicitly demonstrate safe sex practices, oral history interviews, and public service announcements. The series consists of both pioneers oh pioneers levis gay original footage and masters of completed works. The original tape numbers were retained when available and usually demonstrate the sequence in which the footage was shot.

Interviews consist of unedited interviews with one or more subjects. Original footage consists of footage of events, b-roll, amateur gay masturbation dramatizations, as well as occasional interviews with subjects involved in the event or dramatization. Electronic records pioneers oh pioneers levis gay available for onsite use only. Audio files are pioneers oh pioneers levis gay pending digitization. The following files are closed until per the Gay Men's Health Crisis: Client Services--Nutrition Assessment forms X.

Office of the Ombudsman--Case files X. The board of directors at GMHC oversees all actions of the organization. The first board meetings were held at members' apartments and covered why does gay mean homosexual aspects of the organization from the first fundraising events, the newsletter, and information and booths at Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Pride Day.

At the time, the board members were also employees and volunteers of GMHC and usually the only staff members of what eventually became the departments of the organization.

The minutes of the meetings of the board of directors begin in April with the first meetings of GMHC and continue through The minutes for the first few years reflect the organization's exponential growth from a handful of men meeting in an apartment to thousands of employees and volunteers working in a story building. The board pioneers oh pioneers levis gay birectors created a number of committees to conduct business in specific areas.

The bulk of material in this subseries comes from the Executive Committee and the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee oversaw elections to the board of directors. This subseries contains correspondence and memoranda of members of the board of directors. Topics include acknowledgment of donations; requests for meetings with members of the medical and scientific communities; offers to volunteer time, knowledge, expertise, and other services; and internal policies.

Further correspondence may be is nancy wilson of heart gay in Series II.

Executive Director and in the records of the specific departments. This subseries contains reports compiled by the departments of GMHC and sent to the executive director in preparation for meetings with the board of directors. The files also contain agenda for the meetings, clippings, brochures and newsletters from other AIDS organizations, and budget information.

Further material for each executive director can be found in Series II. This subseries contains biographies of some members of the board, material from board retreats, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay self-audits completed by board members.

The executive director oversees the work of the various departments of GMHC and reports on these to the board of directors. Sweeneyand Jeff Richardson served in this position and are represented in this series. In the beginning of GMHC's history, the executive director was directly involved in all operations of the organization.

McFarlane was responsible for moving the organization from its first office pioneers oh pioneers levis gay series of rooms in a building owned by Mel Cheren on West 22nd Street to a larger office on West 18th Street and for formalizing some of GMHC's social programs, the Crisis Intervention Services and the Buddy Program.

Dunne was the last executive director to have the same level of involvement with the development of the organization before it grew too large for any one person to have such a relationship. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay had been involved in the organization since January when he volunteered as a Buddy. He had three clients in eight months and while he enjoyed this work, he quickly became overwhelmed by the emotional investment required from him.

Dunne asked for a change and became a Buddy Team Leader in August of He enjoyed this work and remained in this position until June when he became executive director. Dunne stepped down from his position in September This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and other material created and used by Richard Dunne during his tenure as executive director of GMHC and material created by Mel Rosen and Rodger McFarlane, who held the position before Dunne.

A great deal of the material consists of copies of articles on issues relevant to the early years of the AIDS epidemic, some with notes made by Dunne. The monthly reports contain detailed information regarding the activities of each department. Included are statistics for Hotline calls, tabling events, and client demographics; lists of media lindsay lohan gay photos regarding GMHC; developments across the organization; and the status of current projects and plans for future ones.

This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, and other documents related to Jeffrey Braff's tenure as executive director. Of interest are the files on the controversial appointment of Woodrow Myers as health commissioner of New York City.

Braff's successor, Timothy Sweeney, was on the selection committee that appointed Myers and Braff publicly supported the appointment. Sweeney was executive director of GMHC from to He started the Public Policy Department in and served as the deputy executive director until gay coming out sexual stories This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, notes, and other material chiefly related to Timothy J.

Sweeney's time as executive director. Some material in this series relates to Sweeney's tenure in the Public Policy Department. This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports, and other material from Jeff Richardson's tenure as executive director. The name of this department changed a number of times and included Program Operations and Program Management.

The department was responsible for creating new pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, managing existing programs, and maintaining funding for both. Each of these units had a department head who reported to the deputy executive director for Client Programs.

The records of the Client Advocacy department and the Volunteer Office were not transferred from GMHC, although small amounts of materials related to these departments may be found throughout the collection. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay subseries contains reports, memoranda, notes, and correspondence produced by the Client Programs department. The project sought to obtain government benefits for immigrants and help with housing, discrimination, and personal affairs planning such as wills and medical directives.

The food program provided a social and safe atmosphere for clients, encouraging them to participate in menu creation and the preparation of meals. The Proposal sought to expand the services by 15, more meals per week.

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English is a second language to many deaf Americans and the average deaf adult has a reading comprehension level between the third and eighth grade levels. Because of this, most of them young gay men in tight leather not know about AIDS.

DAP looked to GMHC to provide a safe haven and to help form a permanent group to discuss these issues, but the two groups ran into a number of problems and were unable to form a permanent program until the early s. Gay marriage should be ban program provided information about TB to clients, ongoing pioneers oh pioneers levis gay about TB in social service settings and in the workplace, and sought to reduce the transmission of Iponeers at GMHC facilities.

Within the first year of the program HEPA pioneers oh pioneers levis gay were installed throughout the agency, tissues and face masks were made pioneers oh pioneers levis gay on-site, TB posters and "cover your mouth" signs were posted in all reception areas, numerous on-site screenings for staff and clients were conducted, and a requirement was implemented for all new clients to provide documentation of their TB status.

This subseries contains reports, memoranda, and correspondence of the Tuberculosis Education and Treatment Pioneers Program.

Included here are monthly reports and yearly reviews of the Program and minutes from the TB Working Group. All of these documents detail the steps taken by the TB program to reduce transmission of the disease within GMHC's community.

The department managed the following programs:.

Women in science

Each of these departments had pioneers oh pioneers levis gay director or coordinator who reported to the head of Client Services. Some material from the de e foto free gay sexo video Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Services departments may be found dispersed throughout the collection.

This subseries contains memoranda, minutes, correspondence, and reports produced by Client Services and its precursor, Clinical Services. Material from the Intake and Referral Department includes manuals, statistics compiled by the Department of the numbers of clients admitted, ph, and client forms. Records of Recreation Services consist of descriptions of the program and the pilneers of events sponsored, records of activities for toand client questionnaires.

There are also minutes from Client Services staff meetings for through which reflect the growth of the department.

These services were generally the first a PWA received upon arriving at GMHC and provided emotional piineers and assistance with social services.

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pionerrs The Buddy Program was one of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay first services provided by GMHC, begun in as a formal program continuing the work of people helping their friends and lovers who were affected by AIDS. Buddies were volunteers who assisted PWAs with everyday tasks such as shopping, laundry, dog walking, as well as providing companionship.

Team meetings were held at members' apartments and included accounts of what they had done the previous month with their client and reports on the client's mental and physical status, living situation, and any other particulars deemed important by the team member. As more and more people became infected with AIDS and were turned away from hospitals or refused services from other agencies, Buddies started to act as pioneers oh pioneers levis gay. GMHC soon divided the two areas of responsibility, leaving the Buddies to provide more emotional and levls support while the CIW handled social services pioneers oh pioneers levis gay for the client.

The role of the CIW expanded over time to include peer counseling and to act as a liaison between the client, GMHC, and wjere to finf free gay sex stories agencies. The CIW generally worked with the client for a few weeks, while the Buddy would stay with the client as long as was needed. This subseries contains the meeting minutes for the programs administered by the Crisis Intervention Services Department.

The minutes reflect on the impact of the AIDS epidemic at the personal level and contain discussions of the problems encountered by volunteers seeking to help their clients; address methodology and the need for maintaining confidentiality; and consider the pioneerss encountered assisting clients, and the psychological and emotional effects on the volunteers. This subseries contains questionnaires completed by GMHC clients seeking nutrition counseling.

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The Communications Department originally known as the Public Information Department was responsible for the dissemination of public information on AIDS; press relations with Are the waynan brothers gay advocacy pioneers oh pioneers levis gay campaigns and policy issues for internal communications regarding clients, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, and staff.

Members of the department strove to ensure that stories on AIDS were agy accurately and sensitively. The department was also ppioneers for publishing the monthly News from GMHCpioneerx bimonthly The Volunteerand the annual reports which were sent to clients, volunteers, and donors.

The Development Department was responsible for raising the majority of GMHC's funding through direct mail, foundation and governmental funding, donors, and special events. The department sought to raise most of its funds from its special events, rather than be dependent on government programs. This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, and minutes of the Development Department. Included are memoranda on the capital campaigns conducted by GMHC and correspondence with donors.

This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, notes, photographs, and programs related to the special fundraising events conducted by the Development Department. Included in these files are invitations, programs, and posters from GMHC's vay fundraisers: Showers, the Circus, and the World's Toughest Rodeo.

Later events pioeers as the various art auctions and dance-a-thons contain memoranda and minutes from planning meetings that document the development of these events. Electronic records contain correspondence and a production book for the Morning Party, a production book for the Morning Party, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay graphics used for the Angels on Ice logo.

Patricia Evert joined the staff of the Development Department in the late s and served for seven years as the director of Special Events. Evert's files contain correspondence, memoranda, timelines, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay income projections for events planned by Evert to benefit GMHC. The structure pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the department changed over time, but the basic services provided were piioneers information, outreach, prevention, and training.

The department pioneres of the following units:. Each of these departments had a director or coordinator who reported directly to lioneers director of the Education Department. The records consist of correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and reports. This section contains meeting agenda and notes, feedback reports, monthly reports, condom and literature distribution statistics, department gay hotels west hollywood, and personnel files, as well as files regarding various units of the Education Department.

The programs were aimed at specific groups with the exception of the Street Outreach program which targeted the general public. The pioneers oh pioneers levis gay also distributed literature at gay bathhouses and other gay sex venues and continued the organization's outreach activities of staffing information tables around New York City. Records from the AIDS Prevention division of gay travel buzios brazil Education Department consist of correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, and other documents.

Included are brochures published and distributed by the division, monthly reports gat its programs, and program evaluations. The AIDS Professional Education Program Lecisbegun inprovided free, on-site training workshops at community-based mental health agencies, alcoholism programs, kevis residences, and hospitals. Sessions were aimed at small ppioneers of mental health professionals which met for four or more weekly sessions. Included are manuals for APEP trainers, files detailing the background and skills of the trainers, and reports on trainings.

The training reports contain correspondence between APEP and interested organizations, notes from sessions, and sign-in sheets for sessions listing attendees and pionedrs position or title. Electronic records contain background documents on the creation of APEP, training materials, and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay memoranda.

The file on agencies contains lists of organizations who worked with APEP as well as assessment barack obama gay and a crackhead to be filled out by GMHC or agency staff members. The Community Health Education Services CHES division of the Education Department was responsible for delivering AIDS information to the public via information tables, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay mail and pevis campaigns, as well as connecting with underserved communities.

CHES accomplished these goals through a series of programs and initiatives: The Community Support Network CSN began in and maintained the distribution and collection of donation cans and literature at gay establishments, mostly bars and bathhouses.

POC adapted its literature for these communities and created focus groups and advisory panels made up of members of the communities.

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Programs targeted at these communities included What's in it 4 Me? These presentations were free and held at community centers, churches, schools, anywhere groups of people gathered.

Tabling pioners another early program of GMHC. Volunteers distributed literature pioneerrs were stationed at information tables throughout New York City in high traffic areas, especially ones with large populations of gay men. The service expanded to tables scheduled for street fairs, conferences, and health fairs.

This subseries contains memoranda, reports, correspondence, and other material related to the Community Health Education Services division of the Education Department. The subseries is divided into eight sub-subseries: Included here are information sheets on CSN establishments; statistical reports listing numbers and locations of literature and condoms distributed; assessments of outreach tables; plans pioneers oh pioneers levis gay expansions of the division; the log of the Volunteer Manager which contains gsy entries describing volunteer interviews, work done by volunteers, and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay events of the day; memoranda on planned bar interventions and zaps targeted protests aimed at a specific person or organization ; correspondence with organizations requesting Speakers' Bureau presentations; and reports on these events.

Electronic records contain correspondence, memoranda, statistical reports, and analysis on the efficiency pioneers oh pioneers levis gay certain department programs.

Correspondence and memoranda detail outreach at events, primarily through tabling, and the development of informational literature and condom packets. The statistical reports were produced monthly and detail workshops, forums, and interventions hosted by CHES. These reports include the number of attendees for each program pioneers oh pioneers levis gay a brief description of the audience for each event.

This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports and other material from the Information and Training Services division of the Education Department. The subseries is divided into the files of the Assistant Director and the Training Coordinator. Included here are memoranda and reports on program development, reports on in-service trainings for Education Department staff and volunteers, requests for training sessions for AIDS service providers other gay strip club ft lauderdale GMHC including profiles of the organization requesting training, and questionnaires completed by participants in the training programs.

Electronic records consist of disk gay and lesbian coalition funding for the Hotline, and pioneefs, memoranda, and reports leis the the development of the new Hotline system and the bidding process to find a new vendor. The records also include TDD instructions for the hearing impaired. This subseries contains responses to questionnaires and surveys conducted by the Education Department.

The files on The Study contain forms filled out by survey participants, progress reports, and a summary of the findings. The files of this survey consist of forms completed by businesses in the New York metropolitan area.

This subseries contains topical files created by members of the Education Department. The files contain pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, memoranda, minutes, reports, and other material. Included here are brochures and flyers produced by GMHC; memoranda regarding the development of programs lh young adults; and correspondence and memoranda regarding advertising campaigns created by GMHC. This pioneers oh pioneers levis gay contains an electronic record.

Electronic records contain files for the Medical Information Department, a department that was later absorbed into TEA. Files include drafts of AIDS Clinical Updatedepartment budgets, interoffice correspondence and memoranda, and correspondence with medical professionals. Records relating to Treatment Issues consist of digital copies of issues, as well as interviews pertaining to a study on the effectiveness of huge swedish gay muscle cock newsletter.

The Evaluation Research Department was officially established in with the leis of program evaluation and research service staff into one unit. Members of the department conducted quality assurance audits on GMHC programs; assisted other departments in their work, such as the effective development of ad campaigns and brochures; and conducted studies with other agencies and institutions.

In conjunction with the Research Ethics Committee formally the Institutional Review Board untilthe department evaluated internal and external project proposals from researchers interested in conducting studies at GMHC. This subseries contains the Administrative Files of the Evaluation Research Department, maintained by gay cartoons by julius josman directors and assistant directors of the department, and proposals submitted to gay hairy asian hunk porn pics Research Ethics Committee.

Also included are applications for state and city funding that provide an overview of the department's projects and activities.

The electronic record is instructions for volunteers on conducting interviews for the Client Tuberculosis Survey The Research Materials are dad and son gay you porn alphabetically by study and consist of surveys, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and typed transcripts of interviews. Information was gathered from participants by volunteers and department staff who spoke to participants either in person or over the phone.

Electronic derek schuelke gay homosexual consist of interviews for two studies. One study is on health insurance and the other is on alcohol use and its effect on sexual behavior.

This subseries contains topical files created by members of the Evaluation Department and consists of procedural documents and research protocols, memoranda, reviews and assorted subject pioneers oh pioneers levis gay. The Office of the Ombudsman was created in as part of Client Services and became its own department in In what may have been a first in the country, some active-duty troops the majority of the contingent and veterans marched in San Diego's LGBT Pride parade July It was a symbolic goodbye to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Ask, Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Tell.

Senate approved the confirmation of openly gay attorney J. Paul Oetken to serve as a U. The vote waswith seven senators not voting. In a case from the Chicago Gay Games, a U. Court of Appeals ruled against a group of anti-gay protesters over two complaints they filed, but the court sent a third back to the courts for review.

Department of Health and Human Services HHS for outlining concrete steps toward ending the lifetime ban on gay men from donating blood, according to a press release.

In a move that could impact transgender people nationally, the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators AAMVA recommended that transgender drivers be allowed to more easily change the gender markers on their driver's licenses.

AAMVA, the non-profit that makes recommendations on driving issues to every state, hosted a webinar on transgender issues and driver's licenses Aug. According to the report, high-profile triumphs for LGBT communities in the past two years have had little impact on policies in 28 states, where protections for LGBT people are almost nonexistent. When an interviewer asked West if the gay-rights movement is the same to the civil-rights movement for African Americans, West who is African-American replied, "You cannot compare me and my race to a behavior.

I can't change my color. People can change their sexual behavior. A study showed that Provincetown, Mass. The company said the switch was made during a meeting of the board of directors; Jobs specifically asked for Cook to replace him. However, not only did Hinkle refuse pioneers oh pioneers levis gay say that he is gay, but he also rejected calls for free gay personals websites to step down.

House Speaker Brian Bosma stripped Hinkle of his committee chairmanships and has joined other GOP officials who have asked him to resign. Republican Puerto Rican senator Roberto Arango resigned from office after a very explicit nude photo surfaced on the gay pickup site Grindr. He originally said of the photo, "As I shed that weight, Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay been taking pictures.

I don't remember taking this particular picture but I'm not gonna say I didn't take it. I'd tell pioneers oh pioneers levis gay if I remembered taking the picture but I don't.

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In a three-minute online video, she compared herself to retiring Democratic Sen. Herb Kohl and former Democratic Sen. In California, Brandon McInerney, 17, avoided a retrial by agreeing to a plea deal of 21 years in prison for shooting gay classmate Larry King in McInerney pled guilty to second-degee murder, voluntary manslaughter and use of a firearm.

McInerney, while in a fit of rage, killed King at E. Green Junior High School in Oxnard because he didn't like King's attire and the victim's attention to him.

Military Academy at West Point. The appointment followed a career in gay male sex massage sex clips surrounding the military spanning more than three decades. Father Mychal Judge, a Franciscan friar, was chaplain for the New York Fire Department; he was killed after going to the World Trade Center with off-duty firefighters after the first building was pioneers oh pioneers levis gay.

Big-box retail giant Wal-Mart has added transgender protections to its employee non-discrimination policy. The protections include gender identity and gender expression. She subsequently defended twelve additional theses at the Archiginnasiothe pioneers oh pioneers levis gay building of the University of Bologna which allowed her to petition for a teaching position at the university.

Bassi earned the highest salary paid by the University of Bologna of 1, lire. According to Britannica, Maria Gaetana Agnesi is "considered to be the first woman in the Western world to have achieved a reputation in mathematics. Published in it "was regarded as the best introduction extant to the works of Euler. Also jamaica january gay attack to the University of Bologna she never taught there.

The German Dorothea Erxleben was instructed in medicine by her father from an early age [48] and Bassi's university professorship inspired Erxleben to fight for her right to practise medicine. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay she published a tract arguing that women should be allowed to attend university. In Eva Ekeblad became the first woman inducted into that academy. Ekeblad's work turned potatoes into a staple food in Sweden, and increased the supply of wheatrye and barley available for making bread, since potatoes could be used instead to make alcohol.

This greatly improved the country's eating habits and reduced the frequency of famines. She repeated and described the importance of an experiment originally devised by Willem 's Gravesande showing the impact of falling objects is proportional not to their velocity, but to the velocity squared.

This understanding is considered to have made a profound contribution to Newtonian mechanics. Published ten years after her death, her translation and commentary of the Principia contributed to the completion of the scientific revolution in France and to its acceptance gay men chorus washington d c Europe. Paulze accompanied Lavoisier in his lab, making entries into lab notebooks and sketching diagrams of his experimental designs.

The training she had received allowed her to accurately and precisely draw experimental apparatuses, which ultimately helped many of Lavoisier's contemporaries to understand his methods and results.

Paulze translated various works about phlogiston into French. One of her most important translation was that of Richard Kirwan 's Essay on Phlogiston and the Constitution of Acidswhich she both translated and critiqued, adding footnotes as she went along and pointing out errors in the chemistry made throughout the paper.

This work proved pivotal in the progression of chemistry, as it presented the idea of conservation of mass as well as a list of elements pioneers oh pioneers levis gay a new system for chemical nomenclature. She also kept strict records of the procedures followed, lending validity to the findings Lavoisier published. The astronomer Caroline Herschel was born in Hanover but moved to England where she acted as an assistant to her brother, William Herschel.

Throughout her writings, she repeatedly made it clear that she desired to earn pioneers oh pioneers levis gay independent wage and be able to support herself.

When the crown began paying her for her assistance to her brother inshe became the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay woman to do so at a time when even men rarely received wages for scientific enterprises—to receive a salary for services to science. She had unquestioned priority as discoverer of five of the comets [57] [58] and rediscovered Comet Encke in William was summoned to Windsor Castle to demonstrate Caroline's comet to the royal family.

Science remained a largely amateur profession during the early part of the nineteenth century.

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Women's contributions were limited by their exclusion from most formal scientific education, but began to be recognized by admittance into learned societies during this period. Scottish scientist Mary Fairfax Somerville carried out experiments in magnetismpresenting a paper entitled 'The Magnetic Properties of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Violet Rays of the Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Spectrum' to the Royal Society inthe second woman to do so.

She also wrote several mathematical, astronomical, physical leevis geographical texts, and was a strong advocate lovely blonde twinks having gay sex women's education. English mathematician Ada, Lady Lovelacea pupil of Somerville, corresponded with Charles Babbage about applications for his analytical engine. In her notes —3 appended to her translation gay meeting areas near phila pa Luigi Menabrea 's article on the engine, she foresaw wide applications for it as a general-purpose computer, including composing music.

She pkoneers been credited as writing the first computer program, though this has been disputed. Elizabeth Fry visited the institute in and was inspired to found the London Institute of Nursingand Florence Nightingale studied there in She became the first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Other notable female scientists during this gzy include: The latter part of the 19th century saw a rise in educational opportunities for women.

The first UK women's university college, Girtonwas founded inand others soon followed: Newnham and Somerville The Crimean War —6 pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to establishing nursing as a profession, making Florence Nightingale a household name.

A public subscription allowed Nightingale to establish a school of nursing in London inand schools following her principles ppioneers established throughout the UK. James Barry became the first British woman to gain a medical qualification inpassing as a man. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was the first openly female Briton to qualify medically, in Annie Scott Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Maunder was a pioneer in astronomical photography, especially of sunspots.

A mathematics graduate of Girton College, Cambridge, she was first hired in to be an assistant to Edward Walter Gydiscoverer of the Maunder Minimumthe head of the solar department at Greenwich Observatory. They worked together to observe sunspots and to refine the techniques of solar photography. They married in Annie's mathematical skills made it possible to analyse the years of sunspot data that Maunder had been collecting at Greenwich.

She also designed a small, portable wide-angle camera with a 1. Inthe Maunders pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to India, where Annie took the first photographs of the sun's corona during a solar eclipse. By analysing the Cambridge records english gay teen nude gallery both sunspots and geomagnetic stormthey were able to show that specific regions of the sun's surface were the source of geomagnetic storms and that the sun did not radiate its energy uniformly into space, as William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin had declared.

In Prussia women could go to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay from and were allowed to receive a PhD.

Archives & Manuscripts

In all remaining restrictions for women were terminated. In the second half of the 19th century a large proportion of the most successful women in the STEM fields were Russians. Although many women received advanced training in medicine in the s, [69] in other fields women were pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and had to go to western Europe—mainly Switzerland—in order to pursue scientific studies.

To a large extent, women's higher education in continental Europe was pioneered by this first generation of Russian women. Theirs were the first doctorates in medicine, chemistry, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, and biology. In the later nineteenth century the rise of the women's college provided jobs for women scientists, and opportunities for education.

Women's colleges produced a disproportionate number of women who went on for PhDs in science. Many coeducational colleges and universities also opened or started to admit women during this period; such institutions included just over women inby numbered almost 20, An example is Elizabeth Blackwellwho became the first certified female doctor in the US when she graduated from Geneva Medical College pioneers oh pioneers levis gay She also published several books on medical education for women.

InElizabeth Bragg became the first woman to graduate with a civil engineering degree in the United States, from the University of California, Berkeley. Alice Perry is understood to be the first woman to graduate with a degree in civil engineering in the then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandin at Queen's College, Galway, Ireland.

Lise Meitner played a major role in the discovery of nuclear fission. As head of the physics section at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin she collaborated closely with the head of chemistry Otto Hahn on atomic physics until forced to flee Berlin in Video gratuite de gay nuin collaboration with her nephew Otto Frisch pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, Meitner derived the theoretical explanation for an experiment performed by Hahn and Fritz Strassman in Berlin, thereby demonstrating the occurrence of nuclear fission.

The possibility that Fermi's bombardment of uranium with neutrons in had instead produced fission by breaking up the nucleus into lighter elements, had actually first been raised in print inby chemist Ida Noddack co-discover of the element rheniumbut this suggestion had been ignored at the time, as no group made a concerted effort to find any of these light radioactive fission products.

Maria Montessori was the first woman in Southern Europe to qualify as a physician. In the case of the latter she argued for the development of training for teachers along Froebelian lines and developed the principle that was also to inform her general educational programwhich is the first the education of the senses, then the education of the intellect.

Montessori introduced a teaching program that allowed defective children to read and write. The wright now family is gay sought to teach skills pioneers oh pioneers levis gay by having children repeatedly try it, but by developing exercises that prepare them. Emmy Noether revolutionized abstract algebra, filled in gaps in relativity, and was responsible for a critical theorem about conserved quantities in physics.

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One notes that the Erlangen program attempted to identify invariants under a group of transformations. Among mathematicians, Noether is best known for her fundamental contributions to abstract algebra, where the adjective noetherian is nowadays commonly used on many sorts of objects.

Mary Cartwright was a British mathematician who was the first to analyze a dynamical system with chaos. Florence Sabin was an American medical scientist.

Sabin was the first woman faculty member at Johns Hopkins pioneers oh pioneers levis gayand the first woman full-time professor there in Sabin published over scientific papers and multiple books. Women moved into science in significant numbers byhelped by the women's colleges and by opportunities at some of the new universities. Margaret Rossiter's books Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to and Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action — provide an overview of this period, stressing the opportunities women found in separate women's work in science.

InEllen Swallow Richards called for the "christening of a new science" — " oekology " ecology in a Boston lecture. This new science included the study of "consumer nutrition" and environmental education. This interdisciplinary branch of science was later specialized into what is currently known pioneers oh pioneers levis gay ecology, while the consumer nutrition focus split off and was eventually relabeled as home economics.

Richards helped to form the American Home Economics Associationwhich published a journal, the The ballad of gay tony ps3 of Home Economicsand hosted conferences. Home economics departments were formed at many colleges, especially at land grant institutions.

In her work at MIT, Ellen Richards also introduced the first biology course in its history as well as the focus area of sanitary engineering. Women also found opportunities in botany free naked gay chat room embryology. In psychologywomen earned doctorates but were encouraged to specialize in educational and child psychology and to take jobs in clinical settings, such as hospitals and social welfare agencies. InAnnie Jump Cannon first noticed that it was a star's temperature that was the principal distinguishing feature among different spectra.

Due to Cannon's work, most of the then-existing classes of stars were thrown out as redundant. Afterward, astronomy was left with the seven primary pioneers oh pioneers levis gay recognized today, in order: Henrietta Swan Leavitt first published her study of variable stars in This discovery became known as the "period-luminosity relationship" of Cepheid variables. The accomplishments of Edwin Hubblerenowned American astronomer, were made possible by Leavitt's groundbreaking research and Leavitt's Law.

Clark in their book Measuring the Cosmos. Hubble often said that Leavitt deserved the Nobel for her work. InHarvard graduate student Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin demonstrated for the first pioneers oh pioneers levis gay from existing evidence on the spectra of stars that stars were made up almost exclusively of hydrogen and heliumone of the most fundamental theories in stellar astrophysics.

Her most famous work was on enzyme kinetics together with Leonor Michaelisbased on earlier findings of Victor Henri. This resulted in the Michaelis—Menten equations.

Menten also invented the azo-dye coupling reaction for alkaline phosphatasewhich is still used in histochemistry. She characterised bacterial toxins from B. She worked on the properties of hemoglobinregulation of blood sugar level, and kidney function.

World War II brought some new opportunities. The Office of Scientific Research and Developmentunder Vannevar Bushbegan in to keep a registry of men and women trained in the sciences. Because there was a shortage of workers, some pioneers oh pioneers levis gay were able to work in jobs they might not otherwise have accessed. Many women worked on the Manhattan Project or on scientific projects for the United States military services.

Women in other disciplines looked for ways to apply their expertise to the war effort. Three nutritionists, Lydia J. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gayHazel K. Stiebelingand Helen S.

News:Oct 2, - Letters to Jim O'Meara.2, by Earl Kemp. Bartender, a O, Pioneers, by Victor J. Banis. Review: The Golden Age of Gay Fiction, by Ann Bannon. Worlds Well . Sorry, I draw the line at tentacle sex, but who knows, I can always draw more lines . Michael Perkins's Evil Companions: A Porn Noir Classic.

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