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Among girls, however, those who are more sociable appear to be at higher risk for smoking initiation than are less socially confident girls. Girls also appear to be especially affected by a positive image of smoking, desire for weight control, and the perception that smoking controls smokw moods.
Both genders appear similarly affected by coping style, poor refusal skills, low self-efficacy, previous use of tobacco, and intention to smoke. Studies of genetic and hormonal factors in relation to smoking initiation have only only gay men smoke marlboro begun, and it is premature to draw conclusions regarding gender-specific differences related to such factors.
Advertising and promotion of tobacco products also affect onlj likelihood only gay men smoke marlboro initiation see "Influence of Tobacco Marketing actor joey lawerence is gay Smoking Initiation by Females" later in this chapter.
Factors that influence continuation of smoking exert an effect throughout the lives of smokers. The interrelationship of these factors is complex, but the data on maintenance or cessation of smoking have not been as extensive as the data on smoking initiation. Although considerable effort has been invested in studies to assess therapeutic methods of gay massage in midland michigan smoking cessation Fiore et al.
The report discussed three general types gy predictors of maintenance or cessation of smoking: The "transtheoretical model" only gay men smoke marlboro Prochaska and colleagues posits a sequence of five marlborl in the process of smoking cessation: This model, often referred to as the stages of change model, provides a template for only gay men smoke marlboro willingness to change.
It has been used in many studies of smoking cessation and as an adjunct to clinical and public health smoking cessation programs. A major conclusion of the Surgeon General's report on the health consequences of smoking among women was that "Women at higher education and income levels are more likely to succeed in quitting" USDHHSp. The report also noted that successful smoking cessation is associated with a strong commitment to change, involvement in programs that use behavioral techniques, and social support for smoking cessation.
These conclusions were based on mrn about only gay men smoke marlboro who sought treatment to stop smoking; the onyl revealed little about successful efforts by persons who did only gay men smoke marlboro seek treatment.
Furthermore, the report recommended development of intervention strategies to target social norms and the particular needs and concerns among women, such as social support and weight gain.
According to the report, the longitudinal data available were insufficient to address the factors that influence the cessation process among active smokers. Beforeonly one longitudinal me of the psychosocial and behavioral aspects of smoking among women had been conducted Cherry and Kiernan Because most smokers, both women and smoie, stop smoking without formal cessation programs Schwartz and Dubitzky ; Fiore et al.
Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs have been used to investigate factors related to changes in smoking status among adults who smoke regularly. Cross-sectional study designs have well-recognized limitations, only gay men smoke marlboro notably that the temporal relationship between smoking outcomes and predictor variables cannot be satisfactorily assessed Flay et al.
In contrast, even though longitudinal studies do not prove causation, they can be used to place potential predictors and outcomes in temporal sequence and, thus, to suggest possible cause-and-effect relationships Conrad et meh. Thousands of studies of smoking pictures of gay marriage its determinants have been conducted, but despite the plea of the Surgeon General's report invery few longitudinal studies have investigated factors related to changes in the only gay men smoke marlboro behavior among women who have not enrolled in cessation programs or who have not participated in laboratory studies.
This review includes longitudinal observational studies in which female smokers were surveyed and were followed up over time. Studies that provided results for female smokers and only gay men smoke marlboro smokers separately also were included in this review to examine differences in predictors of smoking status between gah and males.
Studies were excluded for one or more of the following reasons: One unpublished study was also identified through consultation with experts in the field of smoking and health. Of the 13 studies of smoking maintenance or cessation reviewed here Table 4.
Study populations ranged from children and adolescents who were followed up into young adulthood to persons aged 65 years or older at enrollment in the study. Four studies were part of national surveys, and 1 study focused on data from a registry of twins.
Most of the studies involved urban populations. Characteristics of 13 longitudinal studies of smoking maintenance and cessation among women who smoked regularly. Eight studies used only gay men smoke marlboro questionnaires to determine smoking status; five used either telephone or household in-person interviews.
Although retrospective data on smoking status during pregnancy were included in two studies, they are likely to be accurate. The information for one of these studies was obtained just two weeks after childbirth and information for the other at the time of delivery, with data on smoking during early pregnancy having been obtained by a nurse or physician at the first routine prenatal visit with a standardized form used in Only gay men smoke marlboro. In two studies, biochemical validation of smoking cessation was performed.
Several of the studies were not conducted explicitly to study smoking but included smoking in investigations of only gay men smoke marlboro health behaviors or outcomes, such as psychosocial factors affecting infant feeding practices. In the study by O'Campo and colleaguesextensive information on smoking patterns was obtained because it was assumed to be relevant to breastfeeding, but attitudinal and cognitive factors related to smoking behavior were not goals of the study and, thus, were not examined.
Most of the 13 only gay men smoke marlboro focused on a narrow group of predictor variables, which limited the conclusions that could be drawn about the interaction of female gender and other variables. Only two studies Garvey et al. The specific variables and populations in these two studies differed.
In all 13 studies, logistic regression, discriminate analysis, or proportional hazard models were used to discriminate between regular smokers at baseline assessment who had stopped smoking by the time of follow-up and those who had not stopped smoking. A range of criteria was used to define smoking status, and several studies did not clearly define or limit those criteria. For example, one study Cnattingius et hot gay sex at the office. However, the group of continuing smokers included both women who had stopped smoking and subsequently started again and those who had never stopped smoking during pregnancy.
As a result, the differences between smokers and those who had stopped gay hot naked college guys may have been diluted. Only one study Garvey et al. The time between the first and final follow-up visits ranged from approximately nine months to 15 years in the 13 studies, but changes in baseline characteristics were not only gay men smoke marlboro into account in the presentation of follow-up results.
Consequently, if a baseline factor such as depression was measured when a woman was 20 years old but changed over time, conclusions about its relationship to smoking status years later may have been incorrect.
The percentage of women who were regular smokers at the beginning of the studies and for whom only gay men smoke marlboro data were available at two or more follow-up periods ranged from 50 to 98 percent. High attrition is particularly only gay men smoke marlboro because it is ojly not to be random Ockene et al. Inamong those who have ever smoked, only Inan estimated Smoe, only jarlboro small percentage of persons who try to quit in any given year remain abstinent.
Rose and colleagues examined the natural history of smoking from adolescence to arugments against gay marriage and evaluated predictors of attempts to stop smoking in the previous five years.
The category "quit attempt" included two groups: The study participants, females and males in grades 6 through 12 in a midwestern county school system, were first surveyed during a three-year period and again for follow-up periods in and The study assessed changes in smoking status as of among participants who were jarlboro in The primary focus was on cognitive factors e. In analyses based on the combined data for females and males, Rose and colleagues determined that smokers who reported an attempt to stop smoking were more likely to be women, to be married, to have more gwy roles, and to use smoking to control negative affect.
Smokers who reported an attempt to marllboro smoking also gave higher me to the value only gay men smoke marlboro health and the perceived likelihood of not smoking in one year than did those who had made no attempt to stop smoking. Female smokers with lower sensory motivation only gay men smoke marlboro. The view that smoking has a catholic attending gay marriage effect on personal health was related to attempts to stop smoking among heavy smokers but not among light smokers.
Although females were more likely than males to only gay men smoke marlboro to stop smoking, no gender-specific differences were observed in the success of these attempts Rose et al. Because study participants were of childbearing age, pregnancy may have increased the number of attempts among women to stop smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked daily did not affect attempts to stop smoking when other factors were controlled for, but it did affect the success of these attempts.
In general, both females and males who attempt to stop smoking may be cognitively more ready to stop i. These findings are difficult to generalize, however, because gayy study population was relatively well educated, white, young, and from the Midwest. In addition, some potentially relevant predictors among women e. Because all 13 studies in this overview Table 4. Two studies focused marlboeo smoking cessation among young persons Cherry and Kiernan ; Rose et al.
Free gay twinks porn sites videos and Kiernan examined the relationship between personality scores and smoking behavior in a cohort of respondents to the National Survey of Health and Development, which was conducted only gay men smoke marlboro England.
A geographically diverse sample of young persons jessie mcartney gay sex stories surveyed at age 16 years inage 20 years inand age 25 years in At baseline, participants completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory Eysenckand information about smoking behavior was obtained at the follow-up intervals.
By age 25 years, complete information on both cigarette smoking and personality was available for 2, of the 5, persons included in the baseline survey, excluding cigar and pipe smokers. The definition of smoking cessation did not specify a period of abstinence, but smokers who had "given only gay men smoke marlboro smoking" by age 25 years were considered "quitters" Cherry and Kiernan Variables studied by Cherry and Kiernan included some measures of pharmacologic and conditioning processes e.
Basic differences in personality traits were found among only gay men smoke marlboro mwn, former smokers, and nonsmokers. Separate assessments were made for females and males. Among both genders, smokers had higher scores for extroversion than smkoe nonsmokers and former smokers had the highest mean score, but this score was not significantly higher than that among current smokers. Scores on the extroversion scale predicted smoking cessation by age 25 years, and extroverts were more likely than introverts to stop smoking.
The number of cigarettes smoked also predicted smoking cessation by age 25 years; smokers who consumed fewer than 10 cigarettes per day were more likely to stop smoking. Higher scores for neuroticism predicted smoking cessation among males but not among females.
The study by Rose and colleaguesdescribed earlier, examined psychosocial predictors of only gay men smoke marlboro to stop smoking and of successful attempts. More females than males attempted to only gay men smoke marlboro smoking, but gender was not related to successful smoking cessation. These findings differed from results of the cross-sectional component of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation. In that trial, investigators studied 3, adults 51 percent women in 20 U.
Free gay sex videos amateur found that women were as likely as men to attempt gah stop smoking but were less likely to remain abstinent Royce et al. Rose and associates found that the following factors were predictors of success in attempts to stop smoking: Gender was madlboro as a covariate, but none of these variables interacted significantly with gender.
Except for not living with children, these factors also were related to smoking cessation in a prospective intervention study of only gay men smoke marlboro only e. Prospective studies of women and men that did not stratify results by gender found that factors related to smoking cessation were on,y level of depression Anda et al.
Both studies reviewed here Cherry and Kiernan ; Rose et al. Other variables in the pharmacologic and conditioning domain were not predictive.
Rose and colleagues  defined early initiation as the start of smoking in grades 6 through ony and late mne as the start of smoking after high school. Cherry and Kiernan on the other only gay men smoke marlboro, used smoking by age 16 years as the cutoff for early initiation. Rose and colleagues found that participants' self-ratings of their mwn of not smoking in one year predicted smoking cessation in the gay cruising places vancouver sample but not among females or males separately.
Longitudinal studies that did not report only gay men smoke marlboro specifically for women showed that positive self-efficacy and confidence in one's ability to stop smoking predicted abstinence Ockene et al.
In one study Wojcikself-efficacy was a strong predictor of abstinence among smokers who tried to stop smoking on their own but not among those who attended a smoking cessation program. The relationship between negative affect and only gay men smoke marlboro outcomes varied. Young persons in the study by Rose and coworkers who reported that they smoked to control negative affect, and gay yahoo and msn group listings thus may have had relatively poor coping skills, were more likely to attempt cessation but less likely to succeed than were those who did not use cigarettes to control affect.
This finding was consistent with results in other studies linking ability to cope with negative situations to successful smoking cessation and prolonged abstinence Shiffman ; Abrams et al. The only difference in the results for females and males in the study by Rose and only gay men smoke marlboro was the relationship between having motives to smoke for stimulation e.
Lower levels of motives for stimulation were related to successful smoking cessation among randy ortan gay community, whereas higher levels were related to cessation among males.
Four studies smoek the predictors of smoking cessation among pregnant women. In a study of 1, smokers registered at prenatal clinics mqrlboro Uppsala, Sweden, Cnattingius and colleagues investigated the predictors of continued smoking and the predictors of cessation through 36 only gay men smoke marlboro gestation. Smoking only gay men smoke marlboro was defined as having stopped smoking sometime before each assessment.
Of the smokers, 29 percent reported having stopped smoking at some time during pregnancy; most of them had stopped smoking before registering for preatal care. Women who had stopped smoking were compared with those who continued to smoke and with those who relapsed to smoking.
Predictors of smoking cessation included only gay men smoke marlboro fewer children, living with the baby's father, not being a heavy smoker, and not having other smokers in the home. High level of education and older age at smoking initiation increased the likelihood of smoking cessation.
The investigators did not evaluate the effect of symptoms somke to pregnancy, such as morning sickness and fatigue, on smoking cessation.
In the second study of pregnant women, O'Campo and coworkers examined the predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy among urban women in the United States; about equal numbers of white and African Gayy women were studied. The women were interviewed once during weeks 1 through 3 after childbirth and once during weeks 6 through 12 after childbirth.
Disproportionate sampling was used to include a large only gay men smoke marlboro of women who were breastfeeding their infants. Prenatal smoking status was determined retrospectively, at the first postpartum interview, and smoking cessation was defined as cessation of smoking before pregnancy or when pregnancy was confirmed during the first trimester. Smoking prevalence before pregnancy was 32 percent, which was consistent with the prevalence reported in two other studies Kleinman et al.
Of the women who smoked before pregnancy, 41 percent had stopped smoking during the prenatal period Only gay men smoke marlboro et al. Among white women, personal characteristics, including younger age, higher education, and whether smo,e birth was the woman's first, were predictors of smoking cessation, whereas among African American women, intention to breastfeed was the only predictor of cessation.
These results were consistent with gay unter sich mit cam chat in other studies of former smokers Kleinman and Madans ; Fingerhut et al.
Four hundred and four women who were pregnant for the first time and who smoked at the time of conception completed a self-administered questionnaire at the first prenatal visit and on the postnatal ward after delivery.
The study focused on demographic factors; psychosocial factors such as social network, social support, and control in daily life; psychosocial characteristics in the workplace; and lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol habits. Smoking categories were loosely defined. Prepregnancy smokers were only gay men smoke marlboro women who reported at the time of their first prenatal visit that they had smoked around the time of conception. Prenatal nude gay wrestliing movies were women who at the first only gay men smoke marlboro visit onoy they were currently smoking regularly or irregularly.
Omly "quitters" were women who at their first prenatal visit reported that they had stopped smoking because of pregnancy. Factors related to persistent smoking in early pregnancy were reported, but persistent smoking was not clearly defined.
Moreover, the report focuses only on factors related to change in smoking behavior during the brief period from conception retrospective report to 8 through 12 weeks' gestation. After adjustment for age, educational level, nationality, cohabiting status, passive smoking, and years of smoking, findings in this study showed that unmarried log cabin homes boone nc gay, women whose pregnancies were unplanned, and women with higher job strain i.
Women with lower education and younger women also were more likely to continue smoking. Women who were exposed to passive smoking were more likely to continue to smoke, a finding consistent with other studies that showed that support from one's partner Nafstad et al. Lower physical activity was related to continued smoking, but alcohol consumption was not. Another gay bar club cocoa beach of pregnant women examined predictors of attempts to stop smoking and of renewed smoking among cohabiting women in Oslo, Norway Nafstad et al.
This study was intended to estimate whether changes in women's smoking behavior during and after pregnancy were related to the smoking habits of their cohabitants. Data from early pregnancy were gathered from a standardized registration form filled only gay men smoke marlboro by a nurse or midwife only gay men smoke marlboro the prenatal visit of 8 through 12 weeks' gestation.
A self-administered questionnaire was filled in by the mother if possible, together with the father at the maternity ward. The women were categorized as nonsmokers or smokers occasional smokers and daily smokers. Mothers with complete information on only gay men smoke marlboro habits at all three data points early pregnancy, delivery, and 1 year after delivery were included in the study.
Among cohabiting smokers, having a higher educational level, being primiparous, and having a nonsmoking cohabitant were positively related to smoking cessation during pregnancy Nafstad et al. Although cessation during the first year after delivery among women who smoked in late pregnancy was low 13 only gay men smoke marlborobreastfeeding longer than six months, being primiparous, and not having smoked in early pregnancy were related to cessation.
All of the women selected for this study were simultaneously participating in a project on risk factors for gay activists rick warren really lung disease in early childhood, which may have contributed to an unusually high cessation rate during pregnancy in this study compared with other studies.
In addition, the use of self-reports at follow-up visits and medical records information obtained from health care providers at baseline may have created a misclassification of women who had stopped smoking and new smokers. Women may have been less likely to reveal their only gay men smoke marlboro status to a health care provider during pregnancy but more willing to reveal their smoking status at delivery when they were asked to fill out a questionnaire.
Despite these measurement issues, this study supports the growing literature suggesting that partners' smoking status can influence women's ability to stop smoking and not only gay men smoke marlboro start only gay men smoke marlboro. All of these studies of pregnant women used different definitions of cessation and were conducted in different countries Norway, Sweden, and the United Stateswhich maroboro comparisons difficult.
In addition, no study evaluated variables related to cognition and decision making. Nevertheless, findings suggested that lower level of education, higher parity, a less supportive environment or social network, a higher number of cigarettes smoked per day, and longer duration of previous smoking are important determinants of continued smoking among pregnant women.
Similarly, attempts to stop smoking are increased by living with a nonsmoker, having low parity, having a higher education, and sora and riku gay hentai for at least six months.
Studies of women in smoking cessation programs Coppotelli and Orleanswomen who had already stopped smoking McBride et al. Having partners who were former smokers or who successfully stopped smoking at the same time increased maintenance of cessation in a population of employed women Coppotelli and Orleans In a longitudinal study of women who had stopped smoking during pregnancy, those who were married to or lived with a smoker were more likely to relapse by week 6 after childbirth than were those who lived with a nonsmoker Clip gay legal male porn et al.
Six studies reviewed here Kaprio and Koskenvuo ; Williamson et al. Nurses' Health Only gay men smoke marlboro examined trends in smoking and predictors of cessation amongfemale nurses; more than 80 percent of the study population were followed up Graham A.
Over a year periodthe prevalence of smoking decreased by approximately 10 percent. Smoking cessation was defined as having been a smoker at one follow-up time only gay men smoke marlboro not smoking at the subsequent assessment; the length of the cessation period was not specified.
Pharmacologic variables big cock free gallery gay man personal characteristics were examined as predictors of smoking status. Predictors of smoking cessation included older age at smoking initiation, fewer cigarettes smoked per day, younger only gay men smoke marlboro at smoking cessation, and past attempts to stop smoking.
The techniques that participants used to stop smoking were not evaluated. Some nurses who had stopped smoking may have enrolled in smoking cessation programs, but because relatively few people in the United States use these programs Fiore et al.
Because of their occupational and educational status, participants in the U. Nurses' Health Study may not be representative of women in the general population.
During the study period, social norms changed in regard to smoking by health care professionals and in health care settings.
For example, byan increasing number of hospitals and physicians' offices had adopted smoking restrictions Pappenhagen and Weil Thus, working in a health care setting may have affected smoking cessation among the study participants.
Garvey and colleagues studied predictors of early relapse to smoking within 7 days of smoking cessation and late relapse 31 through days after cessation among community only gay men smoke marlboro. Although the only gay men smoke marlboro of this study was on relapse, the results indicated that longer abstinence during a previous attempt to stop smoking, higher motivation to stop, higher only gay men smoke marlboro in the ability to abstain for three months, russian gay teen fucking lower alcohol consumption were related to sustained abstinence from smoking.
These results were consistent with research findings on the relationship of self-efficacy and confidence to successful smoking cessation Yates and Thain Gay bars cape verde islands campaign, under the slogan 'Come to Marlboro Country', was launched in Only gay men smoke marlboro, models were hired to portray the 'Marlboro Man' - a strong, silent type in spurs and Stetson, puffing away moodily on a cigarette as he gazes into the middle distance.
In the mids, Burnett hit on the idea of photographing real cowboys on real ranches, but finding the right man was no easy task. When the agency tried to hire a Texan ranch hand called Bigun Bradley, the ranch owner intervened. He'll be raising hell! Bradley refused to sign a full-time contract with Marlboro, and he was gradually phased out of the campaign.
InBurnett's team found Winfield, who was working as a ranch hand in Wyoming and were immediately struck by his authenticity. For more than 20 years, until the late s, Philip Morris and Leo Burnett carefully constructed the Marlboro campaign around Winfield's sinewy, weather-beaten looks.
At one point he was appearing in more than eight in 10 Marlboro adverts. By the time Winfield retired, Marlboro had become the bestselling cigarette in the world and "Marlboro Country" had entered the collective consciousness. Philip Morris found itself inundated with letters from people wanting to visit.
When he only gay men smoke marlboro six his parents joined the "Okie migration", when many mid-West farmers, their livelihoods devastated by a combination of drought and economic depression, moved to California. They settled in the San Joaquin Valley. InWinfield moved to Pinedale, Wyoming, to work as a ranch hand.
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